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Srimad Bhagavatam (Bhagavata Purana) :: Conto 12

Vishnu His Attributes and the Order of the Month of Him as the Sun-god

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Srimad Bhagavatam » Conto 12   

 Vishnu His Attributes and the Order of the Month of Him as the Sun-god

(1) S'rî S'aunaka said: "And now, o great devotee of God known with the essence, we enquire with you, the possessor of the broadest knowledge, about this matter of the definitive conclusion described in all the supplementary literatures [the tantras]. (2-3) In what way are the tântrikas of their regulated worship of the Husband of the Goddess, who is Pure Spirit, and how do they conceive of His limbs, His associates, His weapons and His ornaments? All good to you! Please describe to us, who are eager to learn, that practical method of cultivating the yoga process [kriyâ-yoga] by which expertly performed a mortal being may attain immortality."

(4) Sûta said: "With offering obeisances to the gurus I even [though it is difficult] will speak of the opulences belonging to Lord Vishnu which by the standard authorities beginning with the one born on the lotus [Padmaja or Lord Brahmâ] are described in the Vedas and tantras. (5) The nine elements of creation [tattvas] that, beginning with mâyâ [or prakriti], make up the transformations [vikâras], are found in the created reign [the virâth-rûpa], the conscious existence in which the three worlds [lokas] are discerned [see also 11.22: 4-25]. (6-8) This form of the Purusha, the Master, has the earth as His feet, heaven as His head, cosmic space as His navel, the sun as His eyes, the air as His nostrils, the directions as His ears, the Prajâpati as His genital, death as His anus, the local rulers [the demigods] as the many arms of the Absolute Controller, the moon as His mind, yama [or Yama] as His eyebrows, shame as His upper lip, greed as His lower lip, the moonlight as His teeth, delusion as His smile, the trees as the hairs on the body of the Almighty Lord, and the clouds as the hair on the head of the Purusha [see also e.g. 2.6: 1-11, 2.10: 24-32, 10.40: 13-14, 11.12: 18-20]. (9) Just as one can determine the dimensions of a normal individual by measuring the position of his limbs, one can the same way determine the dimensions of Him, the Gigantic Person, according the positions of the planetary systems [see also 5.20-24]. (10) The spiritual light of the individual soul is represented by the Kaustubha gem that is carried by the Unborn One. The S'rîvatsa mark on the chest of the Almighty represents its expansive effulgence [of the gem/the soul]. (11-12) His material energy composed of the various modes is represented by His flower garland, the yellow garment He wears stands for the vedic metres and His sacred thread represents the three syllable AUM. The processes of sânkhya and yoga are by the Godhead carried in the form of His makara ['sea-monster'] earrings, and His crown, bringing fearlessness to all the worlds, represents the superior [transcendental] position. (13) The personal seat upon which He sits is known as Ananta [the snakebed] and stands for unevolved matter and the lotus whereupon He is said to be found is the [pure of] goodness associated with the religion, the spiritual knowledge and so on. (14-15) The club He carries is the principle element [prâna or vital air] relating to the sensory power, physical power and the power of mind; His excellent conchshell is the element water and His Sudars'ana disc is the principle of tejas [the vital power, the dignity, the fire in opposition]. His sword is, [pure] as the atmosphere, the ether element, His shield consists of the mode of ignorance, His bow S'arnga is the specific order [or spirit, the rûpa] of time, and His quiver of arrows consists of the karma [the action or the karmendriyas]. (16) The senses, they say, are His arrows, His chariot the incitement to action, His external appearance constitutes the objects of perception [tânmatras], and his gestures [mudrâs] represent the essence of purposeful action. (17) The cyclic [of time, viz. the sun and the moon] constitutes the exercise of respect for the Godhead, spiritual initiation [dîkshâ] is for the spiritual soul the way to purify, and the devotional service of the Fortunate One is there for someone to put an end to a bad course. (18) Bhagavân carries - to the meaning of the word bhaga [His opulences] - the lotus of His pastimes, and the fan and whisk that the Supreme Lord accepted for His worship represent religion and fame. (19) O dear twice-born ones, His umbrella is Vaikunthha, His spiritual abode where there is no fear and the threefold Veda is there by the name of Suparna [Garuda], the carrier of the Personality of Sacrifice [Vishnu or Yajña]. (20) The Lord His inseparable goddess S'rî is the inner nature that can be directly perceived [*]; Vishvaksena is known as the personification of the tantra scriptures and the eight of Nanda and the other chief guardian associates [**] are the animâ and such [siddhis] of the Lord His qualities. (21) Vâsudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha are, as you know, the names of the manifest forms [the vyûha expansions] of the Original Person Himself, o brahmin. (22) Bhagavân is with the help of the functions of external objects [vis'va, Pradyumna], physical power [taijasa, Sankarshana], thought [prâjña, Aniruddha] and spiritual realization [turîya, Vâsudeva] in this context conceived in the terms of waking consciousness, dreaming, dreamless sleep and the transcendental position [see avasthâtraya]. (23) In His four personal forms Bhaga-vân [the possessor of the fullness], the Lord and Controller, maintains these four states with the help of His major [arms; as in verse 14-15] and minor limbs [His extra limbs, His guardians], weapons and ornaments. (24) O best of the twice-born, He alone is the self-illuminating source of the One Self-existent Spirit who, perfect in His own greatness and completeness, by His own material energy creates, withdraws and maintains this universe. As such [a performer of various material functions] sometimes seen as if He - uncovered as He is in His transcendental awareness - would be materially divided, He can be realized by those who are devoted to Him as their one and true self, their Soul. (25) S'rî Krishna, o friend of Arjuna, o chief of the Vrishnis, o Annihilator of the Rebellious Royal Dynasties whose prowess never deteriorates, o Govinda, place of pilgrimage whose glories, which bring the auspicious just hearing about them, are sung by Vraja's cowherd men and women and their servants; please protect Your servants! (26) Anyone who, rising at dawn, with his mind turned to God for himself chants [recites] these characteristics of the Supreme Original Person, arrives at the realization of the Absolute Truth that is situated in the heart."

(27-28) S'rî S'aunaka said: "As for the description of S'ukadeva Gosvâmî to the one attending who is the grace of Vishnu [Parîkchit] about the sun-god his associates who month by month reside in seven groups, could you please tell us, faithful listeners, what the names and actions are of those who, engaged by his various forms of control, are the expansions of the Lord in His manifestation as Sûrya [see also 5.21: 18]?"

(29) Sûta said: "This regulator of all the planets [the sun] revolving in their midst [around mount Meru, see 5.22: 2] was [by the Lord in the form of Time] created from the beginningless material energy of Vishnu, the Supreme Soul of all embodied beings. (30) The sun being the one and only Lord, the original creator and self indeed of all the [planetary] worlds, constitutes the basis of all ritualistic activities of the Vedas that are differently described by the sages. (31) The Lord in terms of the material energy is thus, divided in nine, described as the time, the place, the endeavor, the performer, the instrument, the specific ritual, the scripture, the paraphernalia and the result, o brahmin [compare B.G. 18: 13-15].

(32) The Supreme Lord, [as the sun-god] assuming the form of Time, is there for the [regulation of the] planetary motion to the rule of twelve, beginning with Madhu [months or mâsas, see also B.G. 10: 21], to which He for each of the twelve separately moves with a different set of [six] associates [next to the Deva consisting of an Apsara, a Râkshasa, a Nâga, a Yaksha, a sage and a Gandharva]. (33) Dhâtâ [as the Deva], Kritasthalî [as the Apsara], Heti [as the Râkshasa], Vâsuki [as the Nâga], Rathakrit [as the Yaksha], Pulastya [as the sage] and Tumburu [as the Gandharva] are the ones ruling the month of Madhu [or Caitra at the vernal equinox, March/April]. (34) [Likewise respectively] Aryamâ, Puñjikasthalî, Praheti, Kacchanîra, Athaujâ, Pulaha and Nârada rule the month of Mâdhava [Vais'âkha, April/May]. (35) Mitra, Menakâ, Paurusheya, Takshaka, Rathasvana, Atri and Hâhâ are the ones ruling the month of S'ukra [Jyaisthha or Jeshthha, May/June]. (36) Varuna, Rambhâ, Citrasvana, S'ukra, Sahajanya, Vasishthha and Hûhû are the ones ruling the month of S'uci [Âshâdha, June/July]. (37) Indra, Pramlocâ, Varya, Elâpatra, S'rotâ, Angirâ and Vis'vâvasu are the ones ruling the month of Nabhas [S'râvana, July/August]. (38) Vivasvân, Anumlocâ, Vyâghra, S'ankhapâla, Âsârana, Bhrigu and Ugrasena are the ones ruling the month of Nabhasya (Bhâdrapada, August/September ***). (39) Pûshâ, Ghritâcî, Vâta, Dhanañjaya, Suruci, Gautama and Sushena are the ones ruling the month of Tapas [Mâgha, January/February]. (40) Parjanya, Senajit, Varcâ, Airâvata, Ritu, Bharadvâja and Vis'va are the ones ruling the month of Tapasya [Phâlguna, February/March]. (41) Ams'u, Urvas'î, Vidyucchatru, Mahâs'ankha, Târkshya, Kas'yapa and Ritasena are the ones ruling the month of Sahas [Mârgas'îrsha, November/December]. (42) Bhaga, Pûrvacitti, Sphûrja, Karkothaka, Ûrna, Âyu and Arishthanemi are the ones ruling the month of Pushya [Pausha, December/January]. (43) Tvashthâ, Tilottamâ, Brahmâpeta, Kambalâs'va, S'atajit, Jamadagni the son of Ricîka and Dhritarâshthra as the Gandharva are the ones ruling the month of Isha [Âs'vina, September/October]. (44) And Vishnu, Rambhâ, Makhâpeta, As'vatara, Satyajit, Vis'vâmitra and Sûryavarcâ are the ones ruling the month of Ûrja [Kârttika, October/November].

(45) All these [personalities] constitute the glories of Vishnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead assuming the form of the sun-god; they take away the sinful reactions of those people who at the junctures of each day remember them. (46) Thus with each of the twelve months and six types of associates moving through this universe, the Deva, the Godhead [of the sun], for its population, is here and in the hereafter sure to disseminate pure consciousness. (47-48) With the sages glorifying Him with the Sâma, Rig and Yajur hymns which reveal His identity, the Gandharvas sing loudly about Him, the Apsaras dance in front of Him, the Nâgas ready the chariot, the Yakshas harness the horses and the strong Râkshasas push it from behind. (49) In front of the chariot the sixty thousand Vâlakhilya brahmin sages pure of praise go with prayers to the Almighty [see also 4.1: 39]. (50) The Unborn Lord Hari, the Supreme Controller, the Beginningless Possessor of All Opulences, thus protects all the worlds expanding Himself each kalpa into various forms."

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SOURCE: Translation: Anand Aadhar Prabhu, http://bhagavata.org/

Production: the Filognostic Association of The Order of Time, with special thanks to Sakhya Devi Dasi for proofreading and correcting the manuscript. http://theorderoftime.com/info/guests-friends.html

The sourcetexts, illustrations and music to this translation one can find following the links from: http://bhagavata.org/